The database server is temporarily down for maintenance or there may be some issues on connectivity. However you can view the content and we apologize for the inconvenience caused. We will be back very soon.
Bloodindex - Home
Search Bloodindex
Login Name :
Password :
 
 
 Dear Guest, Welcome to Bloodindex Sign in | Sign up



My health diary Health Diary - An Online Electronic Personal Health Record Solution

My health folder Health folder

Blood sugar diary Blood sugar diary

BP printable diary Blood pressure report charts and diary

Cholestrol diary Cholestrol Report Diary

Clinical tests diary Customizable Clinical Tests Diary

Treatment diary Treatment follow up diary

Directory service Directory Service

Knowledge zone knowledge Service

Download zone Download Center

Health calculators Health Calculators

News zone News Zone

Tell my friend Tell My Friend

Blood services Blood Services

Support services Download Center

Link map Download Center


Diabetes Zone - Comprehensive detailed information on Diabetes


My Health Folder


bloodindex AIDS zone


HIV/AIDS care community


You are here : Home AIDS Factsheet Laboratory Tests Chemistry Panel

Chemistry Panel


CHEMISTRY (CHEM) SCREEN

AIDS FACT-SHEET

Background Information
 -What is AIDS?
 -HIV Testing
 -Acute HIV Infection
 -How HIV Drugs Get Approved
 -HIV Life Cycle


Laboratory Tests
 -Normal Laboratory Values
 -Complete Blood Count (CBC)
 -Chemistry Panel
 -Blood Sugar and Fats
 -CD4 (T-cell) Tests
 -Viral Load Tests
 -HIV Resistance Testing
 -Monitoring Drug Levels


Preventing HIV Infection
 -Stopping the Spread of HIV
 -How Risky Is It?
 -Condoms
 -Drug Use and HIV
 -Harm Reduction and HIV
 -Treatment After Microbicides
 -Microbicides


Living with HIV
 -Choosing an HIV Care Provider
 -Medical Appointments
 -Telling Others You are HIV Positive
 -Participating in a Clinical Trial
 -How to Spot HIV/AIDS Fraud
 -Vaccinations and HIV
 -Medications to Fight HIV

 -HIV Life Cycle
 -Taking Current Antiretroviral Drugs
 -What Is Antiretroviral Therapy (ART)?
 -Adherence
 -Treatment Interruptions
 -Drug Interactions
 -Strengthening the Immune System

 -Immune Therapies in Development
 -Immune Restoration
 -Interleukin-2
 -Immune Restoration Syndrome
 -Opportunistic Infections

 -Opportunistic Infections


Side Effects and Their Treatments
 -Side Effects
 -Fatigue
 -Anemia
 -Body Shape Changes (Lipodystrophy)
 -Diarrhea
 -Peripheral Neuropathy
 -Mitochondrial Toxicity
 -Bone Problems
 -Depression and HIV


Patient Populations

 -Women and HIV
 -Pregnancy and HIV aids
 -Children and HIV
 -Older People and HIV


Alternative and Complementary Therapies
 -Alternative and Complementary Therapies
 -Ayurvedic Medicine
 -Chinese Acupuncture
 -Chinese Herbalism
 -Cat's Claw
 -DHEA
 -DNCB (Dinitrochlorobenzene)
 -Echinacea
 -Essiac
 -Marijuana
 -Silymarin (Milk Thistle)



 -Nutrition
 -Nutrition
 -Vitamins and Minerals
 -Exercise and HIV
 -Smoking and HIV

A large part of your laboratory report is results of the chemistry screen. These tests measure various chemicals in your blood to see whether your body is working correctly.

Laboratories have different "reference ranges" or normal values for the results of each test. Most lab reports show the normal range and highlight any test results outside the normal range.

The mineral calcium is a major component of bones and teeth. Calcium is also needed for nerves and muscles to work properly, and in chemical reactions in the cells. The body controls the amount of calcium in the blood. However, the amount of protein in the blood can affect calcium test results (see albumin). The most common cause of low calcium test results for people with HIV is low protein levels due to malnutrition or wasting. Abnormal calcium levels can indicate digestive problems.

Phosphorus, like calcium, is a major component of bones. Low levels of phosphorus for a long period of time can cause damage to bones, nerves and muscles. High phosphate levels are most often due to kidney failure.

Glucose is sugar, which is broken down in the cells to provide energy.

THE ELECTROLYTES
The electrolytes are related to fluid balance in your cells. They are especially important if you become dehydrated or have kidney problems.

  • Sodium levels indicate your balance of salt and water. They also are a sign of the functioning of your kidneys and adrenal glands. Abnormal blood sodium levels often indicate that blood volume is too low (due to dehydration) or too high. They can also occur when the heart is not pumping blood normally, or when the kidneys are not working properly.
  • Potassium affects several major organs including the heart. Potassium levels rise in kidney failure, and may be abnormal due to vomiting or diarrhea.
  • Chloride levels often go up and down along with sodium levels. This is because sodium chloride, or common salt, is a major component of blood.
  • Bicarbonate or CO2 measures a buffer system in the blood. A normal CO2 level keeps the blood acidity at the correct level. A high level might be caused by high levels of lactic acid in the blood.


KIDNEY FUNCTION TESTS
The basic kidney function tests are blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine. Abnormal levels of phosphorus, sodium or uric acid can also be caused by kidney problems.

Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) is nitrogen in the blood. This is a waste product that is normally removed by the kidneys in the urine. High BUN levels can be due to a high-protein diet, dehydration, or kidney or heart failure.

Creatinine is a waste product of protein digestion and a measure of kidney function. High levels are usually due to kidney problems. Doctors use the creatinine level as most direct sign of how well the kidneys are removing waste products from the body.

LIVER FUNCTION TESTS
The lab tests called "liver function tests" actually measure the levels of enzymes found in the liver, heart, and muscles. Enzymes are proteins that cause or increase chemical reactions in living organisms. High enzyme levels can indicate liver damage caused by medications, alcohol, hepatitis, or recreational drug use.

Different patterns of these enzymes - when some are elevated and others are normal - can help your doctor identify specific health problems. Laboratory tests include:
  • ALT (alanine aminotransferase), formerly called serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase or SGPT)
  • AST (aspartate aminotransferase), formerly called serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase or SGOT)
  • Bilirubin (a yellow fluid produced when red blood cells break down). Note: The antiviral drugs indinavir (Crixivan®) and atazanavir (Reyataz®) can increase bilirubin.
  • Alkaline Phosphatase
  • GGT (gamma glutamyl transpeptidase)
  • LDH (lactic dehydrogenase, not the same as lactic acid)


OTHER BLOOD CHEMISTRY TESTS
Uric Acid comes from the breakdown of DNA (genetic material in the cells). It is normally removed by the kidneys. High levels of uric acid are fairly common. Very high levels can be caused when the kidneys are unable to remove uric acid from the blood or by leukemia or lymphoma.

Albumin is the major protein in the blood. It maintains water balance in the cells, carries nutrients to the cells and removes waste products. Low albumin is generally a sign of nutrition problems.

Because albumin carries so many substances in the blood, low albumin levels can cause incorrect low results for other laboratory tests, especially calcium or testosterone.

Globulin (also called immunoglobulin) measures the protein in antibodies produced by the immune system. HIV infection causes an abnormally high level of globulin. Levels are usually reported for IgG and for IgA, Igd, IgE and IgM.

Sedimentation Rate (Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate) or Sed Rate measures how quickly red blood cells settle in a tube of blood. A high sed rate indicates some type of inflammation. However, the sed rate does not indicate whether the inflammation is long-term, like arthritis, or is due to the body fighting an infection.

You are here : Home AIDS Factsheet Laboratory Tests Chemistry Panel






Find nutrition values for common foods
 
Bloodindex - Blood pressure diary, reports and charts
 
 
 
Events | About us | Link to us | Contact us | Associates | Services | Fund-rising options | Feedback | Privacy policy | Disclaimer | RSS feed
© 2007 bloodindex